“Carpinus betulus Fastigiata Frans Fontaine is a far better proposition for planting in restricted areas than Carpinus betulus Fastigiata. It retains its columnar habit, being only 3m wide after 25 years. It tolerates pollution and soil compaction, making it an excellent street tree. It grows well on most soils, including clay and chalk. It is a tree well suited for urban settings and for poor planting conditions.”